Co Related Issues

Learning disabilities are a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. The specific causes of learning difficulties are not clearly understood, however, these disorders are presumably related to central nervous system dysfunction. The effects of a learning difficulty are manifested differently for each individual and can range from mild to severe. Learning difficulty may also be present with other disabilities such as mobility or sensory impairments. Often people with Dyslexia may also have specific types of learning disabilities which include;


An individual with dysgraphia has a difficult time with the physical task of forming letters and words using a pen and paper and has difficulty producing legible handwriting.


A person with Dyscalculia has difficulty understanding and using math concepts and symbols.


A person with dyspraxia may mix up words and sentences while talking. There is often a discrepancy between language comprehension and language production.

Non-verbal Learning Disorder

Poor motor coordination, visual-spatial organization and/or a lack of social skills may characterize non-verbal learning disorders.

Auditory Processing Disorder

A person with an auditory processing disorder intermittently experiences an inability to process verbal information.

Asperger's syndrome

Individuals with Asperger’s syndrome (AS; sometimes known as high functioning autism) can exhibit a variety of characteristics along a range of severity. These may include difficulty with change, causing unexpected responses to surroundings difficulty reading non-verbal cues (body language) and determining body space, which can lead to problems with social interactions. They may become preoccupied with a particular subject of interest, or develop obsessive routines. Students with AS whose obsessive interests include their subject can be an asset. They have a high attention to detail, and can be punctual, reliable and dedicated. They may be overly sensitive to sounds, tastes, smells and light. The syndrome is neurologically based but does not necessarily affect intelligence.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or AD/HD is broken down into three different subtypes: Combined Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type.

Many people use the term ADD as a generic term for all types of AD/HD. The term ADD has gained popularity among the general public, in the media, and is even commonly used among professionals. Whether we call it ADD or AD/HD, however, we are all basically referring to the same thing.

ADHD usually persists throughout a person's lifetime. It is NOT limited to children. Approximately one-half to two-thirds of children with ADHD will continue to have significant problems with ADHD symptoms and behaviors as adults, which impacts their lives on the job, within the family, and in social relationships.

AD/HD is a diagnosis applied to children and adults who consistently display certain characteristic behaviors over a period of time.

The most common core features include:
Distractibility (poor sustained attention to tasks)
Impulsivity (impaired impulse control and delay of gratification)
Hyperactivity (excessive activity and physical restlessness)

A crucial consideration is that the behaviors must create a real handicap in at least two areas of a person's life, such as school, home, work, or social settings. These criteria set ADHD apart from the "normal" distractibility and impulsive behavior of childhood, or the effects of the hectic and overstressed lifestyle prevalent in our society.

According to the DSM-IV (the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) some common symptoms of ADHD include: often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes; often has difficulty sustaining attention to tasks; often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly; often fails to follow instructions carefully and completely; losing or forgetting important things; feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or feet, or squirming; running or climbing excessively; often talks excessively; often blurts out answers before hearing the whole question; often has difficulty awaiting turn.

As a Parent you must keep in mind that the exact nature and severity of AD/HD symptoms varies from person to person.

For detailed information on the above learning difficulties and differences please contact the Dyslexia Association of India and we would be glad to be of any assistance that you require.